What is menstrual cycle, phases, and safe days?

Menstrual cycle jpg
Menstrual cycle jpg

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural body changes a woman undergoes each month in preparation for pregnancy. Each month the ovary releases an ova or egg a process known as ovulation, in turn, the body releases hormones that prepare the uterus lining for pregnancy. If fertilization has not taken place, the uterus lining is shed off through the vagina during the menstrual period. The menstrual cycle is different in each individual. The cycle is counted from the first day of one’s period to the first day of the next. Menstrual bleeding occurs every 21 – 35 days lasting for about 2 – 7 days. Menstruation begins from puberty till menopause.

menstrual cycle Phases.

  • Menses phase- characterized by the occurrence of the shedding of the uterus lining when fertilization does not occur. The menstrual period may last for about 3- 7 days.
  • Follicular phase- estrogen hormone level rises causing the endometrium to grow and thicken. The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) makes the follicles in the ovary grow and one of the developing follicles forms an ovum.
  • Ovulation phase- the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) increases causing the ovary to release the ova.
  • Luteal phase- the ovary releases the ova which passes through the fallopian tube to reach the uterus. Progesterone hormone level rises in preparation of the uterine wall for pregnancy in case fertilization occurs. If fertilization occurs, the egg attaches itself to the uterine wall. When fertilization does not occur the level of estrogen and progesterone drops thus making the lining of the uterus shed.

Signs of menstrual.

Causes of menstrual irregularities.

Menstrual irregularities can be treated using birth control that contains progestin. Progestin does not only make periods light but also makes cramping less painful.

How to track your menstrual cycle

Period tracking is important as it helps you prepare if you plan to get pregnant. To track the period one needs to:

Menstrual problems.

  1. Heavy menstrual bleeding which if left untreated may cause anemia.
  2. The absence of the menstrual period is also known as amenorrhoea. It this abnormal for a female of reproductive age not to have periods unless one is pregnant, breastfeeding, pre-puberty, or one is post-menopause.
  3. Dysmenorrhoea – also known as painful menses characterized by cramps.
  4. Premenstrual syndrome is where one experiences mood changes just before the onset of the period. They include fatigue, headache, craving, etc.
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