What is Sunburn? Types, causes, and prevention.

sunburn image
sunburn image

Sunburn is a type of skin burn that results from too much exposure to sunlight. It is also the swelling and redness of the skin. In addition, it is very painful. Much exposure to the sun also causes skin damage. For instance dark spots and dry skin. Sunburns are very common.

Types of Sunburn.

Categories of sunburn are on the basis of skin damage. The two most common types are;

1. First-degree.

This damages the skin’s outer layer. This type of sunburn heals on its own in a few days or a week.

2. Second-degree.

It damages the inner layer of the skin, the dermis, which is the inner part of your skin. It causes blisters. It can take weeks to heal. Therefore this type may need medical treatment.

Symptoms of Sunburn.

  • Painful eyes.
  • Swelling of the skin.
  • Headache.
  • Fever.
  • Tiredness.
  • Nausea.
  • Hot skin.
  • Pain and tenderness.

Any part of the body that exposes to the sun can burn. The signs appear after a few hours of exposure. Therefore, sometimes it may take time to notice the degree to which the sunburn is for instance a day or more. Therefore, one should see a doctor if they develop blisters on the burnt areas.


Exposure to UV rays of the sun causes sunburn. Moreover, the chance of getting a sunburn depends on;

  • The time spent in the sun.
  • Medicines such as antibiotics.
  • The skin type.
  • Ozone layer depletion.
  • The intensity of the UV rays.


A doctor can check the seriousness of the burn. Also, they check the amount of skin affected, the type of skin burns, and the symptoms.


Sunburns usually go away within a few days or weeks. For severe sunburn, the doctor provides rehydrating fluids. However, if one has a third-degree sunburn, the patient may need a skin graft. A surgeon removes dead skin and replaces it with healthy skin. Therefore, they remove the healthy skin from any other part of the body.

Home Remedies.

  • Cover sunburned skin especially when outside.
  • Drink a lot of water.
  • Take a cool bath or shower.
  • Use of hydrating creams and gels.
  • Patients can take NSAIDs for pain relief.


  • Applying sunscreen.
  • Beware of sun exposure.
  • See a dermatologist for regular skin checks.
  • Wear protective clothes for instance long sleeves.
  • Wear sunglasses that block UV rays.
  • Avoid sun tanning and tanning beds.

Therefore, toddlers and infants should also be protected from the hot sun.

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