What is Goiter? Symptoms, Causes, and treatment.

Goiter 1
Goiter 1

A goiter Is a condition in which the thyroid gland grows larger. Therefore, it causes a lump in the front of the neck. The lump will move up and down when swallowing. In addition, the thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped gland in the neck. It produces thyroid hormones, which help regulate the body’s metabolism, the chemical processes that occur in the body.



A tight feeling in the throat.

Changes of voice.

Difficulty in swallowing.

Difficult in breathing.

Dry skin.




Iodine deficiency is the main cause of goiter. Iodine is essential to helping the thyroid produce thyroid hormones. Therefore, when you don’t have enough iodine, the thyroid works extra hard to make the thyroid hormone. This causes the gland to grow larger.

Other causes include the following:

Graves disease.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.



Thyroid cancer.



Colloid goiter- this develops from the lack of iodine, a mineral essential to the production of thyroid hormone. However, people who get this type usually live in areas where iodine is scarce.

Nontoxic goiter- nontoxic goiters don’t affect the production of thyroid hormone and thyroid function is healthy. The cause of nontoxic goiter is usually unknown. However, using medications like lithium can cause it.

Toxic nodular- this type of goiter forms one or more small nodules as it enlarges. Therefore, the nodules produce their thyroid hormone, causing hyperthyroidism. It generally forms as an extension of simple goiter.


Goiter treatment depends on the size of the goiter. Therefore, if your goiter is small and your thyroid function is healthy, your health care provider may suggest awaiting and seeing the approach.

Medication. Medication for may include one of the following.

For increasing hormone production- an interactive thyroid is treated with a thyroid hormone replacement. The drug levothyroxine replaces T-4 and results in the pituitary gland releasing less TSH. Therefore, these treatments may decrease the size of the goiter.

For reducing hormone production- the most common drug is methimazole. In addition, it also reduces the size of the goiter.

For blocking hormone activities- health care providers may prescribe a drug called a beta-blocker for managing hyperthyroid. Therefore, these drugs can disrupt the excess thyroid hormones and lower symptoms.

For managing pain- if the inflammation of the thyroid results in pain, it’s usually treated with aspirin, naproxen and sodium. However, severe pain may be treated with a steroid.

Surgery. You may need surgery to remove all or part of your thyroid gland. Therefore, taking thyroid hormone replacement, depending on the amount of thyroid removed.

Radioactive iodine treatment. This is a treatment for an overactive thyroid gland. However, the dose of radioactive iodine is taken orally. The treatment lowers hormone production and may decrease the size of the goiter.

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