Menopause in women, symptoms, causes, management.

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Menopause is a natural biological process that is marked by the end of the menstrual period and a decline of reproductive hormones in a woman.

Stages of menopause.

  1. Perimenopause- it is marked by the decreased production of estrogen hormone. One may start to experience menopause symptoms and may start from 40 years.
  2. Menopause- one has had no menstrual period for 12 months and at this point the ovaries have stopped releasing the ovum.
  3. Postmenopause- no menstrual period for more than a year. Lever of estrogen is low hence the risk of health-related conditions is high.


The following are symptoms one experiences in the perimenopause stage:

  • Mood changes.
  • Slowed metabolism and weight gain.
  • Dry skin.
  • Hair loss.
  • Irregular periods.
  • Vaginal dryness.
  • Loss of breast fullness.
  • Problem sleeping.
  • Chills.
  • Night sweats.
  • Hot flash.
  • Muscle and joint pains.

Causes of menopause.

  1. Declining of reproductive hormones naturally- estrogen and progesterone hormones are responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle.
  2. Oophorectomy- this is the surgical removal of the ovaries that causes immediate menopause.
  3. Ovarian insufficiency- leads to premature menopause.
  4. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for women who had cancer cases.


Examples of complications one may experience after menopause are:

  • Weight gain its easy for one to add weight due to slow metabolism plus if one is less active in daily activities.
  • Low sexual libido- moisture production in the vagina decreases due to vaginal dryness which may lead to discomfort during sexual intercourse. As a result, there is a reduced desire for sexual activity.
  • Cardiovascular diseases increase especially if one does not eat healthily or exercise regularly so as to maintain a normal weight.
  • Osteoporosis- the risk of one getting a fracture is high due to bones being weak and brittle.
  • Urine incontinence due to the loss of elasticity of tissues of the vagina and the urethra one may have an involuntary loss of urine.


A blood test is done to check for the level of:

  1. Estrogen.
  2. Follicle-stimulating hormone.
  3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone.

In menopause, the level of these hormones decreases.

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How to manage menopause.

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