Vitiligo is a disease that causes loss of skin color in patches. The discolored area usually gets bigger with time. Vitiligo is the lack of melanin, which is the pigment on the skin. Vitiligo affects any area of skin but commonly happens on the face, neck, and hands, and in skin creases. The disease often starts as a pale patch of skin that gradually turns completely white. However, vitiligo does not cause discomfort to the skin, but the patches may occasionally become itch. The condition varies from person to person. There is no way of predicting how much skin will be in need. The white patches are usually permanent.
Causes of types.
Vitiligo is the lack of a pigment called melanin. Melanin is from skin cells called melanocytes and it gives the skin its color. In vitiligo, there are not enough working melanocytes to produce enough melanin in the skin. This causes white patches to develop on the skin or hair.
There are two main types of vitiligo.
Non-segmental vitiligo- appears on both sides of the body as symmetrical white patches. However, this is the most common type of vitiligo, affecting around 9 in 10 people with the condition.
Segmental vitiligo- the white patches only affect one area of the body. However, segmental is less common than non-segmental. Although, it’s more common in children. Furthermore, it usually starts earlier and affects 3in 10 children with vitiligo.
- Loss of color in the tissues.
- Patchy loss of skin color.
- Change in the retina color.
- Premature whitening.
- Depigmentation of the skin.
Medication may improve the appearance of the skin but does not cure the disease. However, the choice of treatment depends on the age, how much skin you will involve, and how quickly the disease is progressing. In addition, the goal of medical treatment is to create a uniform skin tone. This is either done by the restoration of color or elimination of the rest of the color.
Camouflage therapy- using sunscreen with an SPF of 30. Also, the sunscreen should shield ultraviolet B light and ultraviolet A light.
Repigmentation therapy- corticosteroids can be orally or typically. However, the results may take up to 3 months.
Light therapy – examiner lasers emit a wavelength of ultraviolet light close to that of narrow-band UVB.
Surgery – autologous skin grafts-skin is the skin that the doctors remove from one part of the patient and then use to cover another part.